“Mycoplasma” refers to any organism within the class Mollicutes, composed of five genera (Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Acholeplasma, Anaeroplasma, and Asteroloplasma). Over 120 named “Mycoplasma” species exist with13 Mycoplasma species, two Acholeplasma species, and one Ureaplasma species have been isolated from humans. However, only three species are well-established human pathogens (but others likely exist): Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum
Mycoplasmas are cell wall deficient.
Mycoplasmas are associated with lung, rheumatologic and many other chronic inflammatory conditions. [Bibliography below].
C.pneumoniae has a gram-negative cell wall and a unique development cycle with elementary (the infectious particle) and reticulate (the intracellular replicative particle) bodies. Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. Chlamydophila has the following species: C. pecorum, which causes infection in cattle, sheep, and koalas; C. pneumoniae and C. psittaci; C. abortus, which causes ovine and bovine abortion; C. cavieae, which causes guinea pig conjunctivitis; and C.felis, which causes keratoconjunctivitis in cats.
C.pneumoniae is associated in many studies with inflammatory diseases in every organ system. [PMID: 30687565]
Some infections are self-limited and resolve on their own in healthy individuals. Many simple infections resolve with the first therapeutic strategy outlined below. In chronically ill people however they may never be eradicated.
Never tell a chronically ill patient you can “eradicate” these infections but rather treat them like a viral infection that you can marginalize and make “quiet” until an immune assault or other illness flare happens.
I have at this point many chronic patients who treat these, have the labs and symptoms resolve only to have a stressor cause an IgM surge (believed to be a cyst / dormant form reactivated) and need treatment again and again. The same as EBV, CMV etc.
This is not what patients want to hear but it is the truth. That said the faster you re-treat the faster it marginalizes again.
Keeping the infections quiet and marginalized, like viral infections, is dependent on the whole person having immune, endocrine, GI, detox and all other parameters kept in balance and optimized.
Doxy and (possibly better) Minocycline, Macrolides, and Fluoroquinolones.
I often rotate some of the following: astragalus, goldenseal root / Oregon grape, elderberry, oregano (leaf extracts or essential oil), and thyme. Mullen and Seneca may as well as many Radix species appear to inhibit Mycoplasmas. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15974478 and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3517410/#!po=63.3333]
“C. pneumoniae in presence of clarithromycin or ofloxacin compared to controls. In addition, we demonstrated that both resveratrol and quercetin decreased IL-17 and IL-23 production in a time-dependent manner in C. pneumoniae-infected cells. The results showed a particularly strong inhibition of the IL-23 levels released with combined treatment of resveratrol or quercetin and ofloxacin or clarithromycin, suggesting that the combined treatment may afford a synergistic effect in controlling Chlamydia infections.” [PMID: 23952319]
My approach is ALWAYS (regardless of severity of infection) to rotate a macrolide and tetracycline, and treat with a natural medicine synergist, and with all anti-infective therapies nightly use of GI support (probiotics, demulcents and glutamine or carnosine). The usual 60-day Rx meds rotation is 1 week of Azithromycin 250 BID then 3 weeks Minocycline (50 – 100 mg BID) or Doxycycline (100 mg BID). Always address biofilms as well with NAC, ALA or Biocidin, or in resistant case a bismuth-thiol combination drug or supplement.
Depending on length of infection, co-infections, immune status and aggravating things like biofilms Rx can take two months or more in my experience. Usually I do 60 days as described above and then re-assess and leave the patient on natural immune agents for two more months.
More complex infections:
Always test other potential chronic infections. Increase to a Phase-2 biofilm agent. Depending on the Sn/Sx consider the ABX/Nat med combo above in rotation with NatMeds only (depending on other infections found) at as frequent as one month Rx/NatMed and one month NatMed only in rotation long term – or one month Rx/NatMed and two to three months NatMed only. Also in 100% of these cases assess comorbid issues (including but not limited to): endocrine, toxins (mold, chemical, metal), autoimmunity, GI issues etc.